Elections are a critical component of democratic administration. Because direct democracy—a form of administration in which all competent voters make political decisions directly—is unworkable in most modern nations, democratic government…
Elections are a critical component of democratic administration. Because direct democracy—a form of administration in which all competent voters make political decisions directly—is unworkable in most modern nations, democratic government must be conducted through representatives. Elections allow citizens to choose their leaders and hold them accountable for their actions while in government. Accountability can be harmed when elected officials don’t care if they’re reelected or when one party or coalition dominates for historical or other reasons, leaving voters with little option among alternative candidates, parties, or ideas. Nonetheless, the ability to regulate leaders by compelling them to participate in regular and periodic elections aids in the solution of the problem of leadership succession and thus contributes to the survival of democracy. There are many local contractors coming together to sponsor events that ends up making a huge difference in the community.
Furthermore, elections function as forums for discussing public issues and for expressing public opinion where the electoral process is competitive and pushes candidates or parties to reveal their past and future intentions to public scrutiny. Elections thus offer citizens political education and ensure that democratic administrations respond to the people’s will. They also help to legitimate the actions of those in positions of authority, a function that is fulfilled to some extent even by noncompetitive elections.
Officeholders are elected
Electorates have a limited ability to influence government policy. Most elections do not directly establish public policy; instead, they provide a small group of officials the power to enact policy on behalf of the electorate (via legislation and other means).
Political parties dominate the election of officeholders. The selection and nomination of candidates, which is an important first step in the electoral process, is usually left to political parties; an election serves only as of the final step in recruiting candidates for political office. As a result, the party system might be considered an extension of the election process. Political parties provide a talent pool from which candidates are chosen and simplify and direct electoral choice and mobilize voters at the registration and election stages.
Elections for recall
The practice of recalling officeholders, like most populist initiatives, is an attempt to reduce political parties’ control over representatives. The recall, which is often used in the United States, is intended to ensure that elected official acts in the best interests of their constituents rather than their political party or their conscience. The real recall document is usually a letter of resignation signed by the elected official before taking office. A quorum of constituents can invoke the letter during the representative’s term of office if the representative’s performance falls short of their expectations.
Initiative and referendum
The referendum and initiative are elections in which the community’s choices on a particular subject are examined; the former is begun by government officials, while groups of voters initiate the latter. Such techniques show a reluctance to give full decision-making power to elected representatives as forms of direct democracy. Voting in referenda and initiatives, on the …
A successful firm relies on the ability to sell, and it’s a means of generating revenue. However, it can be particularly difficult for a female entrepreneur because you are so committed to your work that sales might feel personal. When you hear a ‘no,’ it can feel like they’re rejecting you rather than denying your offer.
We’ve all been sold to by a sleazy salesperson at some point, so fearing sales and self-promotion are understandable. That memory most likely causes you to think, “I don’t want to be THAT person.”
You do what you do because you care, as evidenced by the fact that you’re reading this and don’t want to be “sales.” I’m willing to guess that when you were a small girl, you didn’t think to yourself, “Oh, I want to be in sales,” You were more interested in helping others.
I’m here to tell you that your work is beneficial to others, so you should publicize it and get it into the hands of those who need it the most.
Consider it more of a ‘being of service’ than a sales pitch.
Self-promotion should not be your primary purpose if you want to sell yourself without seeming slimy. If you walk into a client interaction thinking, “I’m going to sell you a car,” you’ll feel like a sleazy used car salesperson.
“I need to sell something… This client must be signed.”
What if the purpose was to help others instead of succeeding? Perhaps success is simply a result of hard labor.
That means you may concentrate on why you do what you do while feeling accomplished.
Assume you’re a health and weight-loss blogger. You utilize your blog to coach ladies one-on-one. Most crucial, you assist them in losing weight after giving birth in a method that does not overwhelm them while juggling a newborn.
You focus on what you can do during each encounter with a possible weight loss client to make her feel more confident and equipped to lose weight.
“Did I leave this individual better off than when I met her?” you wonder after the meeting. If the response is yes, you’ve done a good job.
You may generate entirely different energy around a conversation by starting it with the idea of “how can I help this individual” (whether it’s online or offline). That smooth, confident spirit makes your potential customer feel more confident that you can help her lose weight in a way that fits into her hectic, new-mother life.
Even better, she starts imagining how much value she’ll get if she pays for it when she concludes the conversation is feeling like you’ve benefited her before she’s even given you a dollar.
The ultimate result: After the conversation, your potential client feels good. You’re pleased with yourself for assisting others. And you’ll have a lot better chance of converting her into a paying customer without feeling sales.’
Promote twice as much as you think you should.
When it comes to selling, confidence is …
Few business activities are more prone to a credibility gap than how executives approach organizational life. A sense of disbelief arises when managers claim to make decisions in rationalistic terms, even though most observers and participants are aware that personalities and politics play a significant, if not dominant, role. Where is the blunder? According to the theory, decisions should be rationalistic and impersonal. Or, in practice, in which business organizations are viewed as political structures?
Organizations, whatever else they are (problem-solving tools, sociotechnical systems, reward systems, and so on), are political structures. This means that organizations function by delegating authority and establishing a framework for exercising power. It is no surprise that individuals who are highly motivated to secure and use management find a comfortable and welcoming environment in business.
Simultaneously, executives are hesitant to acknowledge the role of power in both individual motivation and organizational relationships. Power and politics are, in some ways, dirty words. Some managers retreat into the safety of organizational logic by linking these words to the play of personalities in organizations.
As I will argue in this article, a candid acknowledgment of the importance of personality factors and the sensitive use of people’s strengths and limitations in power distribution decisions can improve the quality of organizational life.
Individuals can wield power through organizations. Organizations exist purely to generate an income surplus over costs by meeting market needs. On the other hand, organizations are political structures that provide opportunities for people to advance their careers and thus serve as platforms for the expression of individual interests and motives. The advancement of one’s career, particularly at the highest managerial and professional levels, is dependent on the accumulation of power as a vehicle for transforming one’s interests into activities that influence others.
Competition and scarcity
A political pyramid emerges when people compete for power in a scarcity-based economy. In other words, people cannot obtain the power they desire simply by asking. Instead, they must participate in decisions about distributing authority within a specific formal organizational structure. Scarcity of power occurs under two conditions:
1. When individuals gain absolute power at the expense of others.
2. Where there is a relative gain—not literally at someone else’s expense—resulting in a relative shift in the distribution of power.
Scarcity and comparison psychology takes over in either case. Humans are prone to making comparisons to bolster their sense of self-esteem. He may compare himself to others and conclude that his total loss or shift in proportional authority shares reflects a loss of power. He may also feel a sense of failure if he compares his position about others to a personal standard. This tendency to compare is deeply ingrained in people, especially because they witness the effects of comparisons early in life in the family, where time and attention, if not love and affection, are given to the most dependent member.
Corporate mergers and acquisitions demonstrate the effects of both types of comparisons. In one union, the president of the …
Each of the multiple participants in planning, designing, funding, constructing, and operating physical facilities has a different perspective on project management for construction, similar to the five blind men encountering different sections of an elephant. Specialized expertise can be useful, especially in large and complex projects, where experts from many fields can provide invaluable assistance. Nonetheless, understanding how the various aspects of the process interact is beneficial. Poor coordination and communication among professionals can lead to waste, high costs, and delays. It is in the owners’ best interests to ensure that such issues do not arise. All players in the process must consider the owners’ interests because, in the end, it is the owners who provide the resources and make the decisions.
We can focus our attention on constructing facilities’ entire project management process by adopting the owners’ perspective rather than the historical roles of specialists such as planners, architects, engineering designers, constructors, fabricators, material suppliers, financial analysts, and others. Each specialization has made significant progress in developing new procedures and equipment for efficiently completing construction projects. On the other hand, these specialists can better respond to the owner’s needs for their services, promote their expertise, and improve their productivity and quality of work if they understand the complete project management process.
The Life Cycle of a Project
Whether an individual, a private organization or a government agency owns a developed facility, it usually represents a significant capital investment. Because market demands or perceived needs drive the commitment of resources for such an investment, the facility is expected to meet particular goals while remaining within the owner’s and regulatory limits, except for speculative housing, where residential units may be offered as-built by the developer, the owners custom-made most developed amenities. A real estate developer can be considered a sponsor of construction projects in the same way that a government agency can sponsor a public project and then hand it over to another government entity after it is completed. The phrases “owner” and “sponsor” are interchangeable in project management because both have the ultimate authority to make all key decisions. Because an owner is effectively acquiring a facility based on a promise in some agreement, it will be prudent for any owner to thoroughly understand the acquisition process to keep strong control over the finished facility’s quality, punctuality, and cost.
The project life cycle for a developed facility can be depicted schematically in Figure 1-1 from an owner’s perspective. A project is designed to respond to market demands or needs promptly. Various options may be examined at the conceptual planning stage, and the technological and economic feasibility will be evaluated and compared to choose the best project feasible. The funding methods for the offered alternatives must also be investigated, and the project will be scheduled in terms of completion and cash flow availability. Following the project’s scope definition, a detailed engineering design will act as the blueprint for construction, and the final cost estimate will serve as the cost control baseline. …